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MEDIEVAL HISTORY

 

The Musalmans

With the fall of Delhi and Kanauj in 1193 A.D. the district passed with in the sphere of the Muslaman's power , which by end of century , held in different degrees of subjection the whole of Hindustan proper except Malwa and some contiguous districts;" and from that date till 1801, if we except the short period of Maratha occupation, it continued uninterruptedly to form a part of the dominions which owed real or nominal allegiance either to the Delhi court or its vassals. To the early period of the thirteenth century is probably to be ascribed the irruption and settling of the Rajputs clans . Sengars spread themselves over the bulk of Bidhuna and Auraiya, wresting the country, as it is said, from half savage Meos. Gaurs occupied parts of Phaphund and Bidhuna near the Kanpur boundary, only to succumb in turn to immigrant Chandels from Mahoba. Parihars established themselves in the wild region of the Pachnada; while Bhadaurias and Dhakras wind the rugged country between the Yamuna and the Chambal. Lately the western portion of the district, with extensive tracts now in Mainpuri , passed into the hands of the Chauhans. Along with these Rajputs immigrants came Brahmans and Kayasthas, and the Hindu inhabitants were distributed over the district in much the same arrangement as obtains at the present day.

The allegiance, however, which some of these hardy tribesmen owed to successive occupants of the Delhi throne was for many years merely nominal. They appear to have been able to hold their own remarkably well and to have bid defiance to the western adventurers with considerable success. Hardly a year seems to have passed by, after the reign of Firoz Shah and the orderly administration be introduced had come to an end, when some expedition had not to be sent against the "accursed in fields of Etawah," in order to extract the payment of revenue. The trouble first began in the reign of Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Shah who ascended the throne in 1389 A.D. After consolidating his position by the defear of Abu Bakr Shah and the old slaves of Firoz Shah near Hardwar in 1390 A.D. this Sultan proceeded monthwards through the Doab to Etawah, where he was met by Vir Singh, the Tomar chief of Gwalior. This chieftain apparently proffered his allegiance to the Sultan, for we read that he was graciously received and sent tack to his kingdom, while the emperor returned along the Jamuna to Delhi. 

The conduct of Nar Singh on this occasion may be considered by implication to have been the same as that of all the neighboring Rajput chieftains; for the evidence furnished by subsequent events shows that he was the acknowledged head of the Rajput tribes that had occupied the Etawah and Mainpuri districts towards the end of the 12th century. Only two years after his reception by Muhammad Shah at Etawah or in 1392 A.D. Nar Singh, Sarvadharan and Bir Bahan broke out into revolt. There is some doubt as to the identity of Sarvadharan, but all indications point to the fact that he is the same person as the Rai Sarwar of the historians and the Sumer Sah of tradition, who founded the Chauhan house of Partapner and whose clansmen were the progenitors of the present Chauhan residents of the Mainpuri district. The coalition was a powerful one and seriously alarmed the Delhi sovereign, who sent Islam Khan against Nar Singh, while he took the field in person against Nar Singh allies. Nar Singh was defeated, his forces were put to flight and he himself compelled to sue for peace. He was carried to Delhi and there kept in prison. Meanwhile Sarvadharan attacked the town of Balram; but on the Sultan's approach he fled to Etawah, followed by the imperial forces. On the succeeding night, however, the rebels abandoned the fort of Etawah which fell into the hands of the Sultan and was destroyed. The following year saw another revolt on the part of Sarvadharan and Bir Bahan, aided, on this occasion, by one Jit Singh Rathore and Abhai Chand, muqaddam of Chandu. Mukarrabul Mulk was sent to put down this outbreak and," when the two parties came in sight of such other, he adopted a conciliatory course and by promises and engagement induced the raises to submit. He carried them to Kanauj and there treacherously had them put to death: but Rai Sarvadharan escaped and entered Etawah." In 1394 A.D. Muhammad Shah died, and was succeeded in turn by his second son, Humayun Khan, under the title of Sultan Ala-ud-din Sikandar Shah, who reigned only a little over a mouth, and his youngest son Mahmud Shah. There appears to have been great confusion at this time in the middle and lower Doab, for Khwaja-i-jahan was entrusted with the administration of the whole country from Kanauj to Bihar, under title of Malik-us Sharq, and he inaugurated his rule by leading an imposing force to chastise the rebels of Etawah and Kanuaj. Some sort of order was apparently introduced out of the chaos only to be lost a few years later during Timur's invasion of India. When the invader had departed the confusion was even worse confounded; the district in the upper Doab and in the neighborhood of Delhi came into the possession of Ikbal Khan; Khwaja-i-jahan retained his hold on the country from Kanauj to Bihar; and the rest of the provinces remained in the hands of the various Amirs and Maliks who happened to have been appointed to them .

 

 

The Jaunpur Campaign

The country appears to have had little rest, for no sooner had the Delhi forces departed than those of Jaunpur under Mukhtass Khan, brother of Ibrahim Shah Sharqi, entered it, An army was at once dispatched from Delhi to ward off the threatened danger, and the arrival of a strong force under Malik-us-Sharq Mahmud Hasan had the effect of causing Mukhtass Khan to retreat and join his brother. After some future efforts to outwit the Jaunpuri troops and bring them to an action Mahmud Hasan retired to the Sultan's camp, while Ibrahim Sharqi advanced along the Kali nadi to "Burhanabad in the district of Etawah." The indecisive battle which took place between the two armies was fought beyond the confines of this district and does not concern it, but the struggle between their leaders probably "gave the infidels of Etawah" the opportunity to disown their nominal master at Delhi. The Sultan was fully occupied in other directions during the next few years, quelling the revolts of his disaffected subjects or suppressing the rebellions of powerful amirs; and it was not till 1432 A.D. that a force could be sent under Kamal-ul-Mulk to coerce his vassals in Gwalior and Etawah. Disorganization now rapidly began to act in in the Saiyid empire. In 1437 A.D. intelligence was brought that Ibrahim Sharqi had seized upon several parganas, and that the Rai of Gwalior and other Rais, including no doubt those of Etawah, had ceased to pay their revenue. But the Sultan refused to take any measures to secure his possessions. The whole of the Delhi empire was split up into provinces governed by potty rulers, among whom the Lodis predominated; and one Qutb Khan, son of Hasan Khan Afghan, was governor of Rapri, Chandawar and Etawah. Qutb khan, together with Isa Khan, jagirdar of Kol and Jalali, and Rai Partab, who held the feof of Bhongaon, Patiali and Kampil, made some efforts to assist Ala-ud-din, the last of the Saiyid Sultans, to resist the growing power of Bahlol; but these were no avail, and the capture of Delhi in April 1451 by Malik Bahlol inaugurated the new rule of the Lodi dynasty. 

 

Bahlol Lodi

Bahlol's position, however, was very soon disputed; for, on the invitation of some of Ala-ud-din's nobles, Sultan Mahmud of Jaunpur advanced with a large army in the same year against Delhi and laid siege to it. The expedition was a fruitless one; and, on Mahmud's retreat, Bahlol Lodi set out to confirm his authority over the lower Doab. Isa Khan was confirmed in possession of Kol and Rai Partab in that of Bhongaon; but Qutb Khan determined to resist at Rapri. That fort was accordingly besieged and its commander captured, only, however, to be confirmed in his jagirs by Sultan Bahlol. From Rapri Bahlol advanced to Etawah, the governor of which offered him homage; and while he was encamped there he was once more attacked by the Jaunpur king at the head of a powerful force. After some petty hostilities a hollow trace was patched up between the rival kings through the influence of Qutb khan lodi, Bahlol's cousin, and Rai Partab, to the effect that the whole of the territory which had belonged to Mubarak Shah, the Saiyid king of Delhi, should be left in the hands of Bahlol, and than that which had belonged to Sultan Ibrahim Sharqi should remain in the possession of Mahmud. It is not quite clear how the country was divided on this occasion; but Etawah seems to have fallen to the share of the Jaunpur chief. One important result of the indecisive engagement near Etawah was that Qutb Khan Lodi, Bahlol's cousin, accidentally fell into the hands of Mahmud, who sent him to Jaunpur for confinement. Mahmud shortly afterwards died and was succeeded by Muhammad Shah, between whom and Bahlol the compact relating to the division of territory was renewed. The truce, however, did not remain long unbroken; for urged on by the entreaties of Shams Khatun. Qutb Khan's sister, to effect the release of her brother, Bahlol took the field against Muhammad Shah and advanced as far as Rapri. 

Rai Partab now threw in his lot with the Jaunpur chief; but the only result of the desultory fighting that took place was the capture of Jalal Khan, Muhammad Shah's brother, who was kept by Bahlol as a hostage for the safety of Qutb khan. Meanwhile the Bibi Raaji, the Jaunpur Sultan's mother, was actively intriguing against her son at Jaunpur, and she succeeded in 1453 A.D. in placing his younger brother, Hussain Khan, on the throne and in effecting the assasination of Muhammad Shah. Husain Khan was soon firmly established in his dominions and once more a peace was patched up with Bahlol, by which both parties bound themselves to remain satisfied with their own possessions for four years. The truce was accompanied by a restitution of prisoners. Qutb Khan Lodi was made over to Bahlol and Jalal Khan to Sultan Husain; while Rai Partab ands on this occasion Qutb Khan of Rapri also joined bahlol. This truce, however, was no more lasting than any of the former ones, and disturbances soon broke out. Darya khan Lodi, incensed by Bahlol's presentation of the standards and kettledrums wrested from him to Rai Partab's son, Nar Singh Deo, assassinated the latter with the approval of Qutb Khan Lodi. In consequence of this, Rai Partab and the amirs Qutb Khan, Husain Khan and Mubariq Khan formed a conspiracy and went over to the Sharqi monarch. Bahlol, finding himself too weak to resist the confederacy, started off for Multan; and the opportunity being too good to be lost, Sultan Husain of Jaunpur once more advanced on Delhi. Bahlol at once turned back to meet him. Continual fighting took place for seven days below the walls of Delhi; and ultimately another truce was agreed on to the effect that both kings should remain within the boundaries of their respective territories for three years. 

In contradistinction to the others, the terms of this agreement were observed, and no hostilities took place for the space of three years. As soon, however, as the period had expired Ahmad Khan, governor of Biana, revolted against Bahlol and invited the aid of the Jaunpur chief. Sultan Husain proceeded with an imposing force of 100,000 horse and 1,000 elephants to Delhi, where peace was again brought about by the intervention of Khan Jahan, only to be broken again a few months later by Sultan Husain. The desultory hostilities that ensued were followed by the inevitable peace. Etawah seems at this time to have been the headquarters of the Jaunpur chief, for we find that the Bibi Raji, the Queen-mother, died here in 1486 A.D. and the fact that the surrounding country acknowledged his supremacy is indicated by Husain's receipt of condolences from the rulers of Gwalior, Biana and Chandarwar. That chieftain now seized Badaun from the Saiyid Sultan Ala-ud-din, and for no particular reason except that Bahlol was far away in Sirhind, he reduced Sambhal and attacked Delhi. Once more a true was concluded and Sultan Husain departed to Jaunpur. The dreary story of the relations between these perfidious monarchs now draws to a close. Sultan Husain, relying on the true, left his baggage behind. Bahlol at once took advantage of the opportunity to plunder it: immense treasure and forty of the noblemen of the Jaunpur kingdom fell into his hands, and the orderly retreat of the Jaunpur Sultan became a disorderly flight. Driven to an extremity he faced about near Rapri, but a battle was averted for the last time by the conclusion of a truce on the old terms. 

The following year 1487 A.D. Sultan Husain came back, forgetful of his oath, to attack Bahlol and a desperate contest took place near the village of Sonhar, which ended in the discomfiture of the Jaunpur forces. The Sultan fell back Rapri. He was followed thither by Bahlol, defeated and driven towards Gwalior the Rai of which place helped him to escape towards Kalpi. Bahlol meanwhile pushed on to Etawah, which was held by Ibrahim Khan, the brother of Sultan Husain and Haibat Khan, called barqandac, "the wolf slayer." After a stout resistance lasting three days the fortress was surrendered to bahlolk, who appointed Ibrahim Khan Lehani to hold it, assigning at the same time some parganas of the district a Rai Dadand. Bahlol thence advanced towards Kalpi, where Sultan Husain had collected all his forces. The Jamuna flowed between the two armies, preventing their meeting; but ultimately Bahlol was conducted across over a ford by Rai Tilak Chand, governor of Kalpi, and when the two armies met near Rangaon Husain, being unable to resist, fled to Rewah. The district passed finally into the power of the Lodi sultans. Bahlol Lodi now overran most of the Jaunpur kingdom Barbak Shah was set up at Jaunpur and the Sultan returned to Kalpi and thence overran Dholpur and Gwalior. From Gwalior he proceeded to Etawah. He dismissed Rai Sangat, one of the Sakit Chauhans and son of Rai Dadand from the government of the place; but shortly after, near the village of Malawi in the pargana of Sakit, fell ill and died in 1488 A.D. He was succeeded by his son, Sikandar Lodi; but disturbance at once broke out among the turbulent Rajput tribes. Agra was founded as the headquarters of the imperial army in order to everawe the refractory chieftains of Biana, Dholpur and Gwalior; and the government of Etawah and Chandawar was bestowed on Ala-ud-din, Sikandar's brother otherwise known as Alam Khan, who subsequently invited Babar to India. 

Ibrahim Lodi, who succeeded his father in 1517 A.D., lost much of his power and influence in his quarrel with his brother, Jalal Khan. In the course of one of his expeditions he encamped sometime both at Bhongaon and at Etawah, and henceforward the place seems to have had a regular Musalman governor. The whole country was in an extremely disturbed condition, and, for two years before Ibrahim's death in 1526 A.D., most of the local governors appear to have been in a state of more or less open rebellion. When Babar came to India he found Qutb Khan, who has frequently appeared on the scene before governor of Etawah.

 

Mugal Dynasty

 Babar and Humayun
It was not, however, until Ibrahim Lodi had been defeated that Babar was able to march down the Doab, and attempt to get the mastery of the country. Rapri was abandoned and was occupied by his troops. Etawah and Dholpur were besieged, but pressed by the Rana of Udaipur on the west and the Afghans of Jaunpur and Bengal on the east, Babar was compelled to recall the troops he had sent to invest Etawah and Dholpur, and ordered them to join prince Humayun at Chandawar on the Jamuna. When Rana Sanka had been defeated, Babar found himself at liberty to reconquer the Doab. He passed through the eastern portion of the district on his way to Kanauj in 1528 A.D., and such was the consternation produced that Rapri and Chandawar at once gave in, while Qutb Khan surrendered Etawah. The district remained now in the possession of the Mughals for 12 years, till Humayun's final defeat at Kanauj in 1547 A.D. Either Babar himself or his son appear to have entrusted the feof of Etawah to Husain Sultan, one of the Uzbek Sultan and that of Kalpi to Yadgar Nasir Mirza, Babar's brother. At any rate these persons were in possession of these territories in 1547 A.D. when Qutb Khan, the son of Sher Shah, advanced from Bengal, on his father's behalf, to contest the empire of Delhi. A deceisive action took place near Kalpi in which the Sur forces were totally defeated by the Mughals and Qutb khan himself slain. But their success was shortlived for in the following year Humayun was himself worsted at Kanauj and forced to abandon Hindustan. The district with the rest of the Doab fell into the hands of Sher Shah, in whose possession or in that of his successors it remained till the victory of Panipat once more gave the kingdom to the Mughals.

Akbar
The details that remain of Sher Shah's scheme of administration are ample testimony of his greatness and title to rank is one of the greatest sovereigns of Hindustan : and it is to his arrangements that the pacification of the country is probably in no small to be attributed. He found the inhabitants of the Jamuna and Chambal tracts no less disobedient and refractory than his predecessors had; but a force of 12,000 horse men from the distant sarkar of Sirhind was brought and quartered at Hatkant in the Agra district to overawe the zamindars and cultivators of the neighborhood : "nor did they pass over one person who exhibited any contumacy." The country was opened out by roads; one of these ran from the Punjab to Sunargaon in Bengal and was probably the same road that was maintained in Akbar's time, running past Etawah to Kalpi and following generally the alignment of the present road from Etawah to Auraiya, Sarais were built at frequent intervals, round which villages were set up; and avenues of trees were planted along each route for the travelers. Courts of justice were established at various places and the policing of the districts was provided for by the issue of regulations to the amils and governors to compel the muqaddams of the villages to keep their villages clear of bad characters and thieves, under pain of having to pay substantial fines to the injured in cases of theft or of suffering the extreme penalty of the law themselves in cases of murder. 

Under the systematic territorial distribution of the empire carried out by the Akbar the present district was divided between no less than four sarkars in the subah of Agra. The western portion under the name of Etawah, formed a dastur in the sarkar of Agra. It comprised seven tappas namely, the Khas Haveli, Sataura, Indawa, Bakipur, Delhi, Jakhan and Karhal, paying altogether 10,739,365 dams in revenue. Of these the Haveli Jakhan and Sataura together with portions of Indawas and Bakipur,are now included in the tahsil of Etawah; while the rest of Indawa and Bakipur now fall within southern Bharthana, formerly a district pargana under the name of Lakhna. The cultivated area of the mahal is given in the Ain-i-Akbari as 284,100 bighas; its chief inhabitants were Chauhans, Bhadaurias and Brahmans; and it contributed 15,000 infantry and 2,000 horsemen to the imperial army. The north of Bharthana and Bidhuna, and possibly also of the present Etawah tahsil, belonged to the mahal of Sakatpur in the sarkar of Kanauj; it had an area of 22,561 bighas and paid a revenue of 623,441 dams, while it sent the relatively large contingent of 4,000 foot and 300 horse to the army. Similar in size and revenue to Sakatpur was the mahal of Sahar, with an area of 25,195 bighas and a demand of 846,553 dams: it, however, was only called upon the supply 500 foot soldiers and 30 cavalry. Sahar probably comprised the bulk of the old pargana of Bidhuna, and to the south of it lay the mahal of Phaphund, whose local limits probably corresponded roughly with those of the pargana which was broken up only in 1894. Then, as now Phaphund appears to have been occupied for the most part by Sengar, Rajputs and, to judge from the amount of revenue it paid in proportion to its size, must have been a well cultivated and populated tract of country. Its cultivated area is recorded as 111,546 bighas paying a revenue of 5,432,391 dams, its military contingent being 2,000 infantry and 300 cavalry. Somewhat to the west and south of Phaphund lay the small of Patti Nakhat with an area of 49,262 bighas, a revenue of 566,997 dams and furnishing a force of 500 foot and 50 horse. The chief town of Patti nakhat was Qasba Babarpur near Sarai Ajitmal, in the west of Auraiya tahsil; and the rest of that tahsil lying north of the Jamuna was split up between the mahals of Suganpur and Deokali in the sarkar of Kalpi. The latter had an area of 109,652 bighas and paid, 1466,985 dams revenue, its chief occupants being Brahmans who were called upon the provide 2,000 infantry and 200 cavalry. But the area of Suganpur is not given in the Ain-i-Akbari, though it was large enough to pay 1,507,877 dams revenue and to contribute 1,000 foot and 60 horsemen to the army. The only part of the district that did not fall within any of these subdivisions was the trans-Chambal tract subsequently known as Sandaus. This belonged to mahal Parihara in the sarkar of Etawah; the latter covered a large tract of country which is not now in British territory, whose area and revenue it would be useless to recite Bahadur khan-i-Shaibani, younger brother of Khan Zaman, the brother of Ali Qutb Khan and a creature of Maham Anka was one of the governors of Etawah during Akbar's reign.

Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangjeb
During the reigns of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb no mention is made of Etawah in the Mohammadan historians. We may presume that the inhabitants were thoroughly subdued and nothing occurred in the district to disturb its peace. During the seventeenth century several bankers of note settled in the town of Etawah which became a large commercial and banking center-another indication that the district remained undisturbed. It is not until the imposing fabric of the Mughal empire began to better to its fall that the city or district again comes into prominence. Several chiefs now arose who carve  out semi-in-dependent states for themselves, one of the best known being Muhammad Khan Ghazanfar Jang, the Bangash Nawab of Farrukhabad. Towards the latter years of his life Muhammad Khan appears to have been governor of Etawah; and in 1741 A.D. he was replaced by Raja Adhiraj Jai Singh Sawai. It is uncertain how long the latter held possession of the district, for it is probable from all the available evidence that the district formed a portion of the territory which belonged to Qaim Khan, the son of Muhammad Khan, and the possession of Qaim Khan was not disturbed till 1748 A.D. 

The history of the period is complicated and in order to understand it fully, it is necessary to summarise the course of events at Delhi. On March 11th 1748 Saadat Khan, the famous Wazir of Muhammad Shah and governor of Oadh, was filled at Delhi and was succeeded by his nephew, Safdar Jang. A little more than one month later, or on April 14th 1748 A.D. the emperor Muhammad Shah died and Safdar Jang seized the opportunity to proclaim Ahmad Shah emperor and to obtain for himself at the same time the coveted office of Wazir. His first act was to induce Qaim khan, the Bangash Nawab of Farrukhabad, to attack the Rohillas, Qaim Khan marched with an army against the Rohillas and a disastrous battle was fought at Kadirganj, in the Budaon district, on November 22nd 1748, in which Qaim Khan was defeated, he himself losing his life in the fight. As a result of this the Rohillas occupied a large portion of Qaim Khan's territory lying north of the Ganges. 

Safdar Jang, whose only object in setting the Afghans of Farrukhabad and the Rohillas to fight was to rid his master's empire of at least one of its most formidable rivals, on receiving news of the defeat, persuaded the emperor that the opportunity was a favorable one for humbling the Bangash Pathans once and for all time. The young emperor, who was entirely subservient to the Wazir, agreed to all his plans; he collected his forces and hikself advanced to Koil, while Safdar janfg marched to within 35 miles of Farrukhabad. At this time Safdar Jang had in his service, as bakhshi or diwan, a Kayasth named Nawal Rai, who is intimately connected with Etawah; for he was a Saksena Kayasth of the Chakwa and Parasna family, who were hereditary qanungos of pargana Etawah. Nawal Rai had been brought into notice by Ratan Chand Bania, diwan of Abdulla Khan and Husain Ali, about 1720, and had risen by his own merits to be deputy governor of the subahs of Oadh and Allahabad.

The Wazir now ordered Nawal Rai to march from Lucknow to meet him without delay; and on December 15th, 1749 Nawal Rai crossed the Ganges with a strong force. His advance was opposed by the Afghans of Farrukhabad; but a battle was averted by the submission of the Bibi Sahiba, Qaim Khan's mother, who agreed to pay a large sum of money. Nawal Rai on behalf of Safdar Jang occupied the Bangash territory and took up his quarters with a strong force at Kanauj. Soon, however, the oppressions of Nawal Rai's subordinates proceeded beyond all bounds and the Afghans began to concert measures of resistance. They went to Ahmad Khan, Qaim Khan's brother, who was living in retirement at Farrukhabad, choice him as their leader and broke into open revolt, Nawal Rai, on hearing of the revolt, advanced to Khudaganj, 17 miles south-east from Farrukhabad, with an immense force, at the same time requesting reinforcements from Delhi. At Khudaganj he was attacked by Ahmad Khan and his Pathans on August 1st 1750, utterly defeated and killed. The Nawab Wazir who was meanwhile advancing to his help, heard of his defeat at Mathura. The Wazir's rage know no bounds; he himself advanced, and sent orders to his son, Jalal-ud-din Haider (afterwards known as Shuja-ud-daula) who was governor of the fort at Allahabad, to put to death the five chelas or pupils of Muhammad Khan Bangash who had been surrendered to him as hostages by the Bibi Sahiba in 1748. The order was accordingly carried out; while the Wazir, after halting a month of Marahra, advanced eastwards and entrenched himself at Ram Chhatauni two miles west of Patiali on the Ganges. Here on the 13th September 1750 he was attacked and defeated by Ahmad Khan, the Wazir himself being wounded in the fight. As a result of this battle Safdar Jang was thoroughly disgraced and intrigues were set on foot at Delhi to deprive him of his estates; while Ahmad Khan mainly through the good offices of Ghazi-ud-din Firoz Jang received a khilat from the emperor and a decree restoring to him all the territory of which his family had been deprived in 1748, Ahmad Khan, emboldened by his success, now proceeded to Allahabad and invested the fort at that place, and the disgraced Wazir set about finding means of recovering his shattered fortunes. 

At this time a large Maratha army under Mulhar Rao and Apa Sindhia was in the neighbourhood of Kotah, 260 miles south of Delhi, and Safdar Jang entered into negotiations with its leaders. It was necessary, however, first to be restored to the emperor's favour. This was accomplished through the good offices of Nazir Jawaid Khan, and after much intrigue the Maratha force was taken into the imperial service at a large pay and put at Safdar Jang's disposal to be employed against the Afghans of Farrukhabad. The forces of Suraj Mal, the Jat prince of Bharatpur, were also added to Safdar Jang's army, and the imposing host advanced across the Jamuna. The first action was fought against Shahdil Khan, the amil of Nawab Ahmad Khan at Koil at the end of March 1751. Shahdil Khan was forced to retreat and as soon as the news reached Ahmad Khan at Allahabad, he threw up the siege of that fortress and retired to Farrukhabad. It would be foreign to the history of the Etawah district to details the events that took place at Farrukhabad. Suffice it to say that, after a considerable amount of indecisive fightings, a peace was ultimately made between Safdar Jang and Ahmad Khan early in the year 1752. By this peace the enormous debt owed by Safdar Jang to the Maharathas, was transferred to the shoulders of Ahmad Khan. As securing for the payment of the amount it was agreed that the Marathas should obtain 16 out of the 33 mahals then forming the territory of the Nawab, of Farrukhabad. In this way a large portion, if not the whole, of the Etawah district came into the hands of the Marathas. The fort at Etawah seems to have been occupied by the Maratha governor, and probably other positions also; but the whole territory appears to have been subordinate to Govind Rao Pandit, Subabdar of Jalaun. Thus it remained till 1761 A.D.


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